Example 3

Rust adjustments for Example "Create Wallet Account".

What adjustments do I need to make in Rust?

In summary, here are the steps you need to take to create the API function.


Let's try to use the iota-client from iota-wallet. So first, comment out the dependency:

# iota-client = { version = "2.0.1-rc" }

Second, add this crate to the existing dependencies:

iota-wallet = { version = "1.0.0-rc" }

By checking Cargo.lock you can determine the real downloaded versions. At the time of writing this tutorial section (June 2023) we are using iota-wallet version v1.0.0-rc.6. Please refer to Crates.io to get more information about the current versions.

But how can you determine if this version supports the Stardust Protocol, used by the Shimmer network and the IOTA Mainnet (since 4th of October 2023)? After adding and saving the library in Cargo.toml_ check the Cargo.lock file. Look for the iota-client version included. If it's a v2 version, then it's compatible for Stardust. For more information, refer to Stardust and (outdated) Chrysalis Versions documentation.

api.rs - Used Paths

Comment out the usage of iota_client::Client:

//use iota_client::Client;

Instead, we are using the Client from iota_wallet::iota_client::Client:

use iota_wallet::{
    iota_client::Client,  // <- Let's use this one
    secret::{stronghold::StrongholdSecretManager as WalletStrongholdSecretManager},
    secret::{SecretManager as WalletSecretManager}
use std::{env, fs, path::PathBuf};

In Rust you can shorten several lines, e.g.

use iota_wallet::iota_client::Client;
use iota_wallet::ClientOptions;
use iota_wallet::account_manager::AccountManager;

by using curly brackets:

use iota_wallet::{

api.rs - Struct WalletInfo

This struct bundles various wallet information. Through code generation of the Flutter-Rust-Bridge, the struct is translated into a Flutter class and becomes part of the bridge_definitions.dart file.

Therefore, it is not necessary to explicitly create it in Flutter! On the other hand, this means that the code generator needs to be executed once for the class to be seamlessly used in Flutter without any errors.

#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
pub struct WalletInfo {
    pub alias: String,
    pub mnemonic: String,
    pub stronghold_password: String,
    pub stronghold_filepath: String,
    pub last_address: String

api.rs - Function create_wallet_account()

There is a lot to talk about here. But first, let's start with the source code.

pub fn create_wallet_account(network_info: NetworkInfo, wallet_info: WalletInfo) -> Result<String> {
    let rt = Runtime::new().unwrap();
    rt.block_on(async {

        let node_url = network_info.node_url;
        let stronghold_password = wallet_info.stronghold_password;
        let stronghold_filepath = wallet_info.stronghold_filepath;

        // Create the needed directory according to the given path
        let mut path_buf = PathBuf::new();
        let path = PathBuf::from(path_buf);

        // Point the "current working directory" to the given path

        // Create the Rust file for the stronghold snapshot file
        let mut path_buf_snapshot = PathBuf::new();
        let path_snapshot = PathBuf::from(path_buf_snapshot);

        let mut secret_manager = WalletStrongholdSecretManager::builder()

        // Storing the mnemonic is ONLY REQUIRED THE FIRST TIME
        // calling it TWICE THROWS AN ERROR

        // Create a ClientBuilder (= client_options in wallet.rs)
        // See wallet.rs:
        // -> src/lib.rs
        // -> line "pub use iota_client::ClientBuilder as ClientOptions"
        let client_options = ClientOptions::new().with_node(&node_url)?;

        // Create the account manager with the secret_manager
        // and client_options (= ClientBuilder).
        // The Client itself is created in the AccountManagerBuilder's finish() method.
        // See wallet.rs:
        // -> src/account_manager/builder.rs
        // -> line "let client = client_options.clone().finish()?;"
        let manager = AccountManager::builder()

        // Create a new account
        let _account = manager

        Ok("Wallet Account was created successfully.".into())

The two structs passed as input parameters contain data from Flutter that is needed to create the wallet. These include the node URL, the mnemonics, the Wallet Alias, the Stronghold Password, and the directory path where both the wallet's database and the Stronghold Snapshot file will be stored.

In the first part of the function, we need to create a PathBuf. It is commonly used when dealing with file I/O operations and working with file systems in Rust.

PathBuf is a type that represents a platform-dependent path. It is used to manipulate and work with file paths in a convenient and cross-platform manner. PathBuf provides various methods for path manipulation, such as joining paths, appending components, and resolving relative paths.

The crucial part of working with paths in our library is that we change the current working directory to our specific path for the database and snapshot file. By doing so, we can perform file operations relative to that directory or access files located in that specific path.

In the next part of the function, we create a Stronghold Secret Manager that is initialized with our Stronghold password and mnemonics. We have chosen to use Stronghold in our wallet for secure storage and management of sensitive information.

The StrongholdSecretManager uses advanced encryption techniques to protect the stored data and provides secure access methods for retrieving and using the secrets when required. It offers features like encryption, decryption, secure key generation, and secure storage of cryptographic material.

Our goal of creating a wallet account is achieved through the Account Manager. The Account Manager provides a set of functionalities and APIs to manage multiple accounts within a wallet. It allows us to create, modify, and interact with individual accounts, such as generating addresses, sending transactions, and retrieving account information.

The Account Manager is configured with our Stronghold Secret Manager and the Client "Options". ClientOptions is nothing more than the ClientBuilder in the original iota-client. Keep this in mind!

Once we have created the Account Manager, there is only one step left, which is creating a new Account for the given wallet Alias. The account's Alias serves as a name or identifier for the account within the wallet.

By creating a new Account, we establish a distinct entity within the wallet to manage specific funds, transactions, and associated addresses. This step enables us to organize and track different accounts within the wallet application effectively.

Behind the scenes, when creating the Stronghold Secret Manager, the snapshot file is generated. Additionally, when creating the Account Manager, a RocksDB database is created.

It is worth noting that the use of RocksDB has previously caused issues between different target platforms with older versions of wallet.rs. Let's see if this problem still persists. In the next section, I will attempt to build the library for all platforms and investigate if any conflicts arise.

Checks using cargo build

There are issues when cross-compiling to Android and iOS Simulator.

Please also refer to the corresponding video (2023-09-03: ToDo).

To examine the various targets, you should navigate from playground_app root directory to the rust directory:

cd rust


I only check the ABI arm64-v8a.

cargo ndk -t arm64-v8a build

Since the latest Android NDK version 25 is being used, I have been encountering issues compiling the libsodium-sys library (v0.2.7) on macOS (M1 chip). This problem did not exist with the previous NDK version 22, which I was using in January.

Cross-compilation error - Android

Cross-compilation error - Android

It's possible that you may not encounter this issue if you use a different hosting operating system. If you manage to successfully compile libsodium-sys on your host system, consider yourself fortunate.


Since I haven't identified the root cause of the issue, I am currently unable to propose a specific solution or fix.


As a temporary workaround, I can suggest building the libsodium.so library for each target individually and including it in our target Rust library. This can be achieved by utilizing the SODIUM_LIB_DIR and SODIUM_SHARED environment variables, as described in the libsodium-sys documentation. I will elaborate on this approach in the upcoming subsection Libsodium library for Android.


cargo build --target aarch64-apple-darwin

That one functions flawlessly :-))

iOS Simulator

cargo build --target aarch64-apple-ios-sim

The compilation fails because there is an unknown build target in libsodium-sys build script:

Cross-compilation error - iOS

Cross-compilation error - iOS

The fact that the libsodium-sys project is marked as deprecated is unfortunate since it limits the opportunity to address and resolve the issue within the repository. See Sodiumoxide's documentation:

"[DEPRECATED] This project has reached the end of its development as a cryptographic library for rust. Feel free to browse the code, and feel free to use it, but it will not see any more updates (unless a security issue arises, those will be fixed)."


One potential solution could be to add a target to the build.rs file within the libsodium-sys folder. However, since the repository is not actively maintained, implementing this fix is currently not possible. As a suggestion, I proposed that the Stronghold team could consider forking the repository and taking up maintenance responsibilities. You can find more information about this suggestion here:

πŸ‘‰ Β  Stronghold Discussion - Portability and reliance on libsodium


To utilize Stronghold for iOS, the only viable workaround at the moment is to compile the code and employ your iOS Device as a test device. Unfortunately, the Simulator cannot be utilized due to the aforementioned problem.

iOS Device

cargo build --target aarch64-apple-ios